The atomic mass of the chemical element gallium is 69.72 g.mol-1. Gallium has an atomic number of 31. In general, gallium is regarded as a soft metal under ordinary temperature and pressure. Ga is the symbol for gallium.

Read More: Gallium Alloy

How Did Gallium Get Found?

The relationships between each chemical element were explained by Dmitri Mendeleev’s periodic law. There were gaps in the periodic table he set up. There was likewise nothing there for number 31. Mendeleev felt positive that element number 31 existed but was just missing based on the elements on the side of the element box. Even further, he foresaw the properties of the yet-to-be-found element and gave it the name “eka-aluminum.”

Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, a French scientist, discovered the chemical element in the 1870s. Paul was going to find out what element was in between indium and aluminum. Paul reasoned that since zinc has an atomic number of 30, gallium may be present in zinc ore. He made the decision to investigate the ore’s spectra, which are unique lines that are generated when chemical components are heated. To his amazement and good fortune, traces of the metal he was looking for were discovered in the ore. He was later able to generate a sizable quantity of pure gallium. In homage to France’s former name, Gallia, he gave the term “gallium.”

Uses for Gallium

Used in the semiconductor sector is pure gallium. Electronic chips and integrated circuits are made with them. In laser devices, gallium compounds are also used. It’s widely utilized in the production of LEDs.

Similar to how mercury is used in medical thermometers, gallium is employed since it is a liquid metal at ambient temperature.

Metals and gallium alloy readily. Certain gallium alloys can be used in place of hazardous mercury alloys.

Glasses are easily wetted and adhered to by gallium. This aids in creating excellent mirrors.

Additionally, plutonium used in nuclear devices is stabilized using an alloy consisting of gallium. Utilizing gallium alloys to cool machinery and other electrical equipment, such as computers, is another use for them.

The biomedical sector uses a lot of gallium. Numerous gallium salts are employed in therapeutic procedures. Certain substances also have anti-cancer characteristics. Studies involving the production of gallium and therapies for cancer, inflammation, and other similar illnesses are being carried out.

Gallium’s Physical Properties

The metal gallium has a glossy, velvety surface. The color of pure gallium is rather silvery-blue. Nature does not contain gallium in its elemental or natural state. It needs to be removed using another method, such as smelting. It is not at all like metal since it is so completely different. It is cuttable with a knife and is soft.

It has a relatively low melting point of about 29 degrees Celsius. As a result, if your body temperature is higher than thirty degrees Celsius, some of it will melt readily in your hands. Together with caesium, rubidium, and mercury, it is one of the four non-radioactive chemical elements that is liquid at ambient temperature. Gallium adheres well to porcelain or glass.

The ability of the Ga element to supercool is another intriguing quality. A material can cool below its freezing point without forming, a process known as supercooling. Gallium has a melting point of about 29 degrees Celsius, thus anything below that is likely to cause it to solidify. For gallium, however, this is not the case. It has the ability to supercool itself without solidifying and keeps its liquid-like form. Gallium also has a difficult time crystallizing.

Additionally, gallium’s alloying qualities make it simple to combine with metals like zinc and aluminum. It may readily spread throughout the steel, aluminum, and zinc metal limits. A well-known gallium alloy made of gallium, tin, and indium is known as Galinstan.

About 2200 degrees Celsius is the boiling point of gallium, and it has a high density of 5.907 grams per cubic centimeter, similar to that of water. It is the only element whose melting and boiling point ratios are so well matched.